Residential Water Treatment Process

Water Sources


Rivers are a common source of water for residential areas. However, they may contain impurities and contaminants that need to be treated before consumption.


Lakes are another source of water for residential areas. Similar to rivers, lakes may also contain impurities and contaminants that require treatment before it is safe for consumption.


Groundwater is water that is stored beneath the Earth’s surface in aquifers. It is often used as a water source for residential areas. However, groundwater can also be contaminated and requires treatment to remove impurities and ensure its safety for consumption.


Pre-treatment is the first step in the water treatment process. It focuses on removing large particles and debris from the water to ensure that it is clean and safe for consumption.

Pre-Treatment Processes

Process Description
Screening The water is passed through screens with small openings to remove large particles such as leaves, twigs, and debris.
Sedimentation The water is allowed to sit in a tank or basin, allowing the heavier particles to settle at the bottom. The settled particles, known as sediment, are then removed.
Coagulation Chemical coagulants are added to the water to help bind together smaller particles, making them easier to remove during the filtration process.
Flocculation During flocculation, gentle mixing is applied to the water to encourage the formation of larger particles called flocs. These flocs can then be easily removed during filtration.



Filtration is an important step in the water treatment process for residential areas. It helps remove smaller particles and impurities, ensuring that the water is clean and safe to use.

Activated Carbon Filtration

Activated carbon filtration is a common method used in water treatment. It involves passing the water through a bed of activated carbon, which has a large surface area and can adsorb contaminants. The activated carbon can remove organic compounds, chlorine, and some heavy metals from the water, improving its taste and odor.

Reverse Osmosis

Reverse osmosis is another filtration process used to remove impurities from water. It works by applying pressure to the water, forcing it through a semipermeable membrane. The membrane allows water molecules to pass through while blocking larger molecules and contaminants. This process can effectively remove dissolved solids, such as salts and minerals, from the water.



Chlorination is a common method of disinfection used in water treatment. It involves adding chlorine to the water to kill bacteria, viruses, and other harmful microorganisms.

Ultraviolet (UV) Treatment

UV treatment uses ultraviolet light to disinfect water. The UV light destroys the genetic material of microorganisms, preventing them from reproducing and causing harm.


Ozonation is another method of disinfection that involves adding ozone to the water. Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent that kills microorganisms by damaging their cell walls and disrupting their metabolic processes.



Transportation of Treated Water

Distribution involves the transportation of treated water to residential areas through a network of pipes.

Availability of Clean and Safe Water

This ensures that clean and safe water is available for consumption by residents.