Correct nutrition in aqua feed formulation
(TSVN) – Correct nutrition to meet the needs of animals has been researched and successfully applied in aquafeeds, reducing crude protein ratio, reducing costs and dependence on fishmeal or animal protein. , improving protein efficiency, reducing emissions while ensuring the growth rate of animals is equivalent to high protein feed.
The content of this article helps stakeholders to view the correct nutritional approach and the opportunity to apply it to the practice of producing aquafeed in Vietnam.
Protein is the deciding factor for food quality?
Dietary essential amino acids (AA) balanced for need will reduce the catabolism of AA and increase protein accumulation. To balance essential AA with the needs of farmed seafood, formulators often combine plant-based ingredients with ingredients rich in methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) such as fishmeal, squid meal. Krill powder or meat meal, meat and bone meal …; and add one or two essential amino acids such as Met or Lys. Today, as the next limited AA, such as Threonine (Thre), Tryptophan (Trip), and Arginine (Arg), are becoming more and more available at reasonable prices, allowing the formulation of 3 – 4 dietary supplements. A limited AA, reduces dependence on this high-priced animal protein source. This formulation allows the reduction of crude protein in most aqua feeds without decreasing growth rate or increasing the feed factor. Research results by Evonik Company in conjunction with universities and research institutes have demonstrated that the crude protein (CP) content in feed can be reduced from 40% CP to 34% CP for Techmart. from 36% CP to 30% CP for tilapia seed stage, from 37.8% CP to 29.9% CP for carp and from 48% CP to 42% CP for rainbow trout. This low-CP feed has a lower cost, reducing emissions and improving protein efficiency.
Most aquaculturists think that the feed with high CP is of higher quality; In fact, digestible protein is broken down into AA for protein biosynthesis and aquatic organism life activities. Therefore, the feed with a demand-balanced essential AA content will be of a higher quality than the high-CP feed with a disproportionate proportion of the essential AA. A quality feed requires CP and essential AA content to meet the needs of the pet.
Use materials on nutritional needs
Nutritional requirements are the most important input factor in feed formulation. Nutritional needs of aquatic animals are determined in many conditions such as pure food, experiment in young animals, research on old breeds … different from actual conditions. In addition, using linear regression models for fracture lines, multivariate regression, or the number of treatments also results in different optimal nutrient levels. Therefore, when applying in formulation, it is necessary to base on the goals of growth, productivity and quality of the animals to adjust nutritional ingredients accordingly.
With long experience in the field of nutrition, Evonik has applied the bioenergy model and the ideal protein principle in successfully building software that determines the needs of essential AA, their ratio to Lys is suitable for each stage of development of each cultured species such as AMINOTilapia®, AMINOCarp®, AMINOShrimp®, AMINOSalmonid® and here is AMINOPangasius®. These softwares allow the selection of input factors according to production practices such as growth potential, time of culture, level of intensification, culture environment … to determine the need for essential AA in feed, This is an important resource for food recipe makers.
Use smart ingredients
In feed formulation, the use of available ingredient nutrition databases based on the average of many years does not reflect the actual quality of ingredients.
In the correct nutrition approach, using the actual ingredients nutrition will save 1-3% of the main nutrients, thereby improving profitability and meeting the nutritional needs of subjects of farming. For example, for a factory producing 100,000 tons of feed / year, if saving 1 – 3% of protein in the formula, at the price of 200 VND for 1% protein, then in a year will save 20-60 billions dong.
Correct nutrition applied in aqua feed production is the goal towards, in order to improve the efficiency of the animal and aqua feed industry. However, there are still many open issues that require more efforts in applied research such as: formulation of formulas according to exchangeable energy and net energy; balance between essential and non-essential nutritional ingredients; combine precision nutrition with gut health solutions; farm management under big database, artificial intelligence and automation. Developing an integrated solution full of the above factors is the goal that stakeholders in the seafood production chain need to coordinate and invest in order to achieve in the near future.